Updating Firmware for Disk Drives in Windows Server 2016 (TP4)

With Windows Server 2016, we set out to address a customer pain point that we had observed over time: disk firmware updates. Our own experience has shown that SSDs require more frequent firmware updates than other storage devices. Requiring a storage deployment to be offline for such maintenance operations negatively affects our customers and the applications they want to run.

The Goal

The long-term goal is to provide a mechanism that allows for the updating of disk firmware with no application downtime when running on Storage Spaces.

Note: Technical Preview 4 (TP4) includes APIs and Windows PowerShell cmdlets that help you update individual disk firmware. Coordination to mitigate an impact to I/O workloads is not yet present. Firmware updates are a risky maintenance operation and you should only perform them after thorough testing of the new firmware image by the system administrator.

First Steps

To ensure common device behavior, we began by defining new and currently optional Hardware Lab Kit (HLK) requirements for SAS, SATA, and NVMe devices. These requirements outline which commands a SATA, SAS, or NVMe device has to support in order to be firmware-updatable using these new, Windows-native PowerShell cmdlets. To support these requirements, there is a new HLK test to verify if vendor products support the right commands and get them implemented in future revisions. Here are links to the various requirements:

PowerShell cmdlets

The two cmdlets added to Windows Server 2016 are:

  • Get-StorageFirmwareInformation
  • Update-StorageFirmware

The first cmdlet provides you with detailed information about the device’s capabilities, firmware images, and revisions. In this case, the machine only contains a single SATA SSD with 1 firmware slot. Here’s an example:

PS C:> Get-PhysicalDisk | Get-StorageFirmwareInformation

SupportsUpdate : True

NumberOfSlots : 1

ActiveSlotNumber : 0

SlotNumber : {0}

IsSlotWritable : {True}

FirmwareVersionInSlot : {J3E16101}

PS C:>

Note: SAS devices will always report “SupportsUpdate” as “True”, since there is no way of explicitly querying the device for support of these commands.

The second cmdlet will allow the administrator to update the drive firmware with an image file. You should obtain this image file from the OEM or drive vendor directly.

The disk will first load the new firmware image to an internal staging area. While this happens, I/O typically continues. The image activates after download. During this time the disk will not be able to respond to I/O commands as an internal reset occurs. This means that no data will be served from this disk during the update. An application accessing data on this disk would have to wait for a response until the firmware update is completed. Here’s an example of the cmdlet in action:

PS C:> $pd | Update-StorageFirmware -ImagePath C:FirmwareJ3E160@3.enc -SlotNumber 0

PS C:> $pd | Get-StorageFirmwareInformation

SupportsUpdate : True

NumberOfSlots : 1

ActiveSlotNumber : 0

SlotNumber : {0}

IsSlotWritable : {True}

FirmwareVersionInSlot : {J3E160@3}

PS C:>

Since these cmdlets are usable through PowerShell, it is also possible to script their use.

Note: Drives typically do not complete I/O requests when they activate a new firmware image. How long a drive takes to activate depends on its design and the type of firmware you update. We have observed update times range from fewer than 5 seconds to more than 30 seconds.

This particular drive performed the firmware update within ~5.8 seconds, as shown here:

PS C:> Measure-Command {$pd | Update-StorageFirmware -ImagePath C:FirmwareJ3E16101.enc -SlotNumber 0}

Days : 0

Hours : 0

Minutes : 0

Seconds : 5

Milliseconds : 791

Ticks : 57913910

TotalDays : 6.70299884259259E-05

TotalHours : 0.00160871972222222

TotalMinutes : 0.0965231833333333

TotalSeconds : 5.791391

TotalMilliseconds : 5791.391


  • Can I update firmware on my SAN through this mechanism?
    • No - SANs usually have their own utilities and interfaces for such maintenance operations. This new mechanism is for directly attached storage, such as SATA, SAS, or NVMe devices.
  • Will this work on any storage device?
    • This will work on drives that implement the correct commands in their firmware. The Get-StorageFirmwareInformation cmdlet will show if a drive’s firmware indeed does support the correct commands (for SATA/NVMe) and the HLK test allows vendors and OEMs to test this behavior.
  • From where do I get the firmware image?
    • You should obtain any firmware directly from your OEM or drive vendor and not download it from other parties.
  • Will this work on clustered disks?
    • The cmdlets can perform their function on clustered disks as well, but keep in mind that no orchestration exists in TP4 to mitigate the I/O impact on running workloads. In general, it is best to perform disk firmware updates when there is no, or just a minimal workload on the underlying disks.
  • What happens when the update fails?
    • The update could fail for various reasons, some of them are: 1) The drive doesn’t support the correct commands for Windows to update its firmware. In this case the new firmware image is never activated and the drive continues functioning with the old image. 2) The image cannot be downloaded to or applied to this drive (version mismatch, corrupt image, …). In this case the drive is expected to fail the activate command. Again, the old firmware image should continue to function.
    • If the drive does not respond after a firmware update, you are most likely hitting a bug in the drive firmware itself. This is why all firmware updates should first be tested in a lab environment before putting them in production.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

We use cookies to give you the best online experience. By agreeing you accept the use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy.